Brakes, steering, accelerator. When asked to name some of a vehicle’s most crucial components, these are some prominent ones that come to mind. The amount of control that they provide to the vehicle’s function is indisputable; any technology linked to them must be scrutinized heavily before it is allowed to be deployed. Such careful evaluation is necessary in producing systems that have minimal vulnerabilities, so it is no surprise that the aforementioned systems are some of the robust. There is, however, one system that holds just as much importance yet has been compromised – airbags.
On October 10th, a vulnerability report was submitted to the Natural Vulnerability Database (NVD) detailing an exploit in passenger vehicles manufactured in 2014 or later that could lead to the airbag being intentionally detonated outside of expected circumstances. The CAN vulnerability, labeled CVE-2017-14937, stems from the lack of security governing the security access needed to detonate the airbags.
According to the published technical report, the ISO standard 26021 represents the only barrier to unauthorized detonation of the pyrotechnical charges linked to the airbags. This protection consists only of a key and seed pair that can be calculated via a weak algorithm that complies with ISO 26021. Since the algorithm is available to anyone with access to the ISO, the proper key can be easily calculated.
Furthermore, a brute-force attack can also cause the detonation of the airbag – as the key proposed by ISO 26021 is only of two bytes. This results in only 65536 different possible keys, a small list for any script to exhaust. This is further magnified by the fact that, according to the ISO standard, “There is no time period which needs to be inserted between access attempts,” meaning that a brute force attack on the system will take place in a miniscule amount of time.
Ironically, the first of these bytes is also mandated to include the definite version number (0x01) of the implemented load detonation method – a reality that, in practice, leaves only one variable byte for the key. With the number of possible keys reduced to a mere 256, the threat this vulnerability poses cannot be underestimated. This guarantees that even without access to the algorithm provided in ISO 26021, the vulnerability can still be exploited at the expense of the passengers.
This discovery points out a dire flaw in the automotive industry’s approach to the security of its in-vehicle networks. The security access originally designed to prevent such premature deployment of a car’s airbags has been turned into a weapon against the consumer – one that could cause severe injury or death. As vehicles continue to rely more and more upon computer systems, appropriate levels of security must be developed in tandem. Without multiple robust layers of protection at every level, smart cars are little more than moving time bombs.